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Update on Ion Wind

Hi Rambabu,

I noticed an update to the Wired article in regards to Shawyer testing for ion wind:

UPDATE: When I asked him about the possibility of “ion wind” being the real cause of thrust, Dr Shawyer patiently explained that it had been addressed at a very early stage:”Air currents from whatever source were eliminated in the first Proof of Concept project by testing the experimental thruster mounted in a hermetically sealed box. The experiment was reviewed and accepted by professional government scientists.” [The research was being supported by the British government at the time.]

He also points out that real ion drives need much higher voltage and that “Anyone who thinks they can create grammes of thrust from ion wind at the voltages we work at clearly doesn’t understand physics.” He does not believe a vacuum chamber test would show anything, as ion drives function in a vaccum and there would still be the question of wehther some ionised material was somehow being ejected. However, the hermetically sealed box test should have negated that possibility.

This seems to strengthen the case for independent testing. But would it convince the skeptics? I suspect that even if the Emdrive was propelling a space probe around the solar system there would still be some saying “Yeah, it works but it can’t be working the way he says it does…”

It is encouraging that Shawyer has tested the device in a sealed box but he is wrong when he says “He does not believe a vacuum chamber test would show anything, as ion drives function in a vacuum…”.  Only ion drives specifically built with propellant on board work in a vacuum.  The “lifter” based ion-wind type requires air to ionize and an episode of Mythbusters shows clearly that the ion-wind based “lifters” do not work in a vacuum.  Mythbusters talk about the Biefeld-Brown “lifter” effect.

Shawyer is correct that his apparatus has neither the significant kilo-volts required, nor are any of the external surfaces of the apparatus in a highly charged state, both required for the Biefeld-Brown effect.

Microwave Propulsion Funding Proposal v2.0

Hi Rambabu,

Below is a revised and more general version of the funding proposal (proposal is available in the wiki).  Notable differences are that I moved the references to the end and expanded the section on the tests that would be carried out.  I also removed the funding requirements because I don’t know what the University requires, besides $7K for a two year license to CST’s MWS.

Can you think of any other tests we could do?  If an enclosed cavity hanging from a pendulum inside a Faraday cage or vacuum chamber still moves, that will be quite some result.

Does the University have or have access to a vacuum chamber?

After spending a few hours looking at all the funding requirements by the various agencies, I have narrow them down to two:

  • Banting Research Foundation – The proposal seems to fit all the requirements of their foundation including the amount of money we need and who can apply, except they are not clear if they only fund medical research.  I have sent them an email, of which you should have been cc’d.
  • Alberta Energy Research Institute – This one is not a good fit, but it might fit under their “hydrogen economy” funding program.

I had a short list of four other funding sources, but the problem is that one or more of their requirements disqualifies us.  Does the university have any access to the Canadian Foundation for Innovation?  It sounds like only University level institutions can apply.

I am thinking that finding funding maybe more about personal connections then cold-calling organizations.  You know anybody that might be interested in this type of research?

If funding is not forth coming, would it be possible to have one of your graduate students take on this project?  The material costs should negligible if I have the cavity welded externally and purchase the rest of the parts myself, i.e. another waveguide-to-n transition for the probe and power coupler.

Funding Proposal for Alberta Ingenuity

Good morning Rambabu,

I looked more closely over the “R&D Associate” funding requirements and, although most things fit like a glove, it is primarily directed towards a company hiring a PhD graduate.  In my meeting on Monday with Stacey, I will ask if there is another funding program better suited to our requirements or if I can use the funds to hire you and a graduate student as consultants.

They have a word document that I will have to fill out and getting it completed will involve some of your time.  After my 10:30am talk with Stacey on Monday, I will phone you with more details and I might pop over to the University to discuss the next step.  Do you have time at 1pm on Monday for an afternoon meeting?

FYI – The company name I am doing this research under is “Levitee”, a trade-markable modification of “levity” or “lightness in weight” and I have an email address “sean _ at _ levitee.com”

Below is a rough copy of the proposal, which I will have to modify to fit their proposal submission document.  Even if funding is not approved, I still plan to get the simulations done in the meantime and to apply at a number of other sources.  The trick is to throw out as many applications as possible and see if any of them will stick.

Are you willing to help me without funding, assuming I cover the material costs?


Objective

Funding is requested to eliminate all mundane explanations for the movement of a “microwave propulsion” experiment, or “EMDrive” as originally designed by Roger Shawyer in 2001.  In collaboration with Dr. Karumudi, associate professor of microwave engineering at the University of Alberta, the “yearly research allowance” will be used to purchase simulation tools and the “stipend” used to pay Dr. Karumudi and a graduate student to properly test a reproduction of Shawyer’s cavity.  If the cavity moves and all mundane explanations have been eliminated, then it could be a significant breakthrough in propulsion.  The initial application will be for station keeping of satellites, however, if the resultant force can be scaled up significantly and Shawyer’s experiments suggested it can, then much larger forces should be possible.  The cavity has been designed and all the necessary parts purchased, and what is needed now if funding for final fabrication and testing.

Introduction

After a long and successful career in microwave engineering, an British engineer named Roger Shawyer decided to investigate an anomaly that had plagued linear accelerators.  Linear accelerators use high power resonating chambers to increase the speed of the particles and in doing so, they ran into a problem with the cavities detuning [1][2].  The problem was that, at full power, the cavities were decreasing their lengths slightly.  In 2001 after retiring from his job at EADS Astrium, he created a company and got funding to see if the force that was causing the detuning could be used for propulsion[5].

Over the course of the past seven years, Roger Shawyer has built three generations of microwave thrusters, each with a higher Q or Quality factor, a measure of the electrical “resistance”.  The first tapered cavity, made out of copper, had a Q of 5900 and for approximately 500W input power, produced 84mN of force.  The second copper cavity he called the “Demonstration Engine”, had a Q of 50,000 and produced 214mN of force.[6]

Shawyer has recently created a superconducting version of his cavity which has a Q of 6,800,000 and although he got “exactly the results” he expected, he has not released the force measurements.

The objective of this proposal is to reproduce Shawyer’s “Demonstration Engine” and if movement is noted, to eliminate all mundane explanations.

This research is not without it’s criticism because the theory Shawyer suggests to explain the asymmetrical force has problems.  However, the theory is outside of the scope of the experiment this proposal will fund and the sole purpose is to independently reproduce the results and eliminate all mundane explanations.  The experiment will be done in collaboration with Dr. Karumudi, assistant professor at the University of Alberta and 2005 winner of the Governor’s Generals Gold Medal award for top graduate students. [4]

This independent verification the proposal will help test is not unique.  As mentioned in an September 24th, 2008 article in Wired Magazine [3] a Chinese professor by the name of Yang Jan at the Northwestern Polytechnical University (NPU) in Xi’an is also racing to recreate the effect as well.

[1] “Lorentz Force Detuning Analysis of the Spallation Neutron Source Accelerating Cavities”, R. Mitchel, et.all, Los Almos National Lab
[2] “Lorentz Force Detuning Compensation System for Accelerating Field Gradients Up to 35MV/M for Superconducting XFEL and TESLA Nine-Cell Cavities”, P. Sekalski, et.al., Technical University of Lodz, DMSC, Poldan, CARE conference, 2001.
[3] “Chinese Say They’re Building ‘Impossible’ Space Drive”, David Hambling, September 24th, 2008, http://blog.wired.com/defense/2008/09/chinese-buildin.html
[4] “Top Graduate Student Streamlines Microwave Design”, The Ring, June 2005, Vol. 31, No. 6 – http://ring.uvic.ca/05jun09/features/rambabu.html
[5] Background of EMdrive, Roger Shawyer, http://emdrive.com/background.html
[6] Demonstrator Engine, video footage of movement, Roger Shawyer, http://emdrive.com/dynamictests.html

Methodology

The experiment will reproduce the “Demonstration Engine” and a simplified 3D model is shown below:

The magnetron, supporting structure, measurement/power hardware and cooling radiator are not shown.

Using the lab facilities at the UofA, the experimental apparatus will be constructed.  Once complete and tuned, if the cavity moves, the following experiments will be conducted to ensure that all mundane explanations are eliminated:

  1. Hung as a Pendulum – In order to eliminate movement due to the cavity pushing or pulling on an external reference point, it will be hung from a long wire and tested.
  2. Inside Faraday Cage – If the cavity passes the first test, it will then be placed inside a Faraday cage to ensure no electrical or magnetic interactions with the surroundings are the cause of movement.
  3. Test for Buoyancy – Heated and/or moving air could account for the force being generated and will also be eliminated.

Upon completion of testing, a journal-ready paper outlining all the testing methodologies and results will be written and submitted to the appropriate physics journal.

Budget

Per year, for two years:
$55,000 – one year stipend for Dr. Karumudi and/or graduate students
$3,500 – License for CST’s Microwave Studio modeling software per year. (see references)
$3,500 – Research Incidentals including extra waveguides, power couplers, etc.

Total per year: $62,000K
Total over two years: $124,000

Applications

The initial application is for satellite station-keeping and orientation.  A cavity that can produce a unidirectional force with only microwaves has an advantage in terms of launch weight and longevity over a propellant based propulsion method.  Shawyer’s very first test cavity produced 85 mN of thrust compared to 92mN for the NSTAR ion drive, but Shawyer’s cavity only consumes a quarter of the amount of power.  The microwave drive system including the cavity also weighs less than 7 kilos, compared to over 30 kilos for the ion drive.. The biggest difference is in propellant because the NSTAR uses 10 grams per hour whereas the microwave cavity uses none and will last as long as it has an electricity supply.

If the force can be scaled up, then it it might be possible to eventually replace most forms of reaction propulsion.

Conclusion and Benefits

This proposal meets the main objectives of the Alberta Ingenuity Fund:

  • Stimulate research in science and engineering

The experiment is an excellent example of applied microwave engineering.

  • Promote the effective use of existing provincial science and engineering resources

Uses the lab at the University of Alberta and the expertise of Dr. Karumudi

  • Support Alberta’s science and engineering research facilities

Supports the University of Alberta

  • Minimize duplication and promote efficiency, by encouraging cooperation within science and engineering research

A collaboration with the University of Alberta.

  • Encourage young Albertans to pursue careers in science and engineering

Will engage one of the newest faculty members of the University of Alberta and graduate students.

Eligibility

Levitee is a startup and meets the following criteria:

  • Provincially or federally incorporated and operates in Alberta, or if not incorporated, is wholly Alberta-owned

Check – Levitee is a wholly Alberta-owned sole proprietorship

  • Operates on a for-profit basis

Check

  • Possesses adequate and sound financial resources

Check –  Levitee has already purchased %95 of the necessary parts for the experiment, including a circulator ($1200 new), reflection load ($600), waveguide to N transition ($600), the raw sheets of copper ($700), plasma cutter ($1100) and a computer with a quad core processor necessary for the simulation software ($3000).

  • Engaged in R and D activities based, to a significant extent, on technology derived from science and engineering disciplines

Check – microwave engineering

  • Maintains appropriate in-house research facilities such as laboratories and computing equipment within the company’s premises OR has access to external research facilities as supported by contractual agreements

Check – experiment will use the lab at the University of Alberta

  • Has an effective plan for applying the research results, and marketing or exploiting products or processes in the best interests of the company and the Alberta economy

Check

Projects
Research projects meets the following criteria to be eligible:

  • Pre-competitive research focusing on a targeted or applied research question or problem leading to the Proof-of-Concept of an inventive idea

Check – the experiment will eliminate all mundane explanations

Candidates
Candidates must meet each of the following criteria to be eligible:

1. Graduate of a Master’s or PhD program within five years of application date OR graduate student expecting to complete Master’s or PhD degree requirements within three months of submitting an application.

Check – Dr. Karumudi graduated in 2005 with a PhD

2. Not currently employed by the sponsoring Alberta-based company OR is currently employed by the sponsoring company but for less than 12 months.

Check – Dr. Karumudi is not employed by Levitee

List of References

  1. Roger Shawyer and the EM Drive
  2. Dr. Karumudi
  3. Lorentz-Force Detuning
  4. Computer Simulation Technology – Microwave Studio – http://www.cst.com/Content/Products/MWS/Overview.aspx
  5. What an ION thruster is and thrust measurements – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ion_Engine

Contacts:

Sean Donovan
Levitee
Sherwood Park, Alberta
<removed phone and email for blog>

Dr. Karumudi
Assistant Professor
ECERF W2-100
University of Alberta
<removed phone and email for blog>

Objective

Funding is requested to eliminate all mundane explanations for the movement of a “microwave propulsion” experiment, or “EMDrive” as originally designed by Roger Shawyer in 2001.  In collaboration with Dr. Karumudi, associate professor of microwave engineering at the University of Alberta, the “yearly research allowance” will be used to purchase simulation tools and the “stipend” used to pay Dr. Karumudi and a graduate student to properly test a reproduction of Shawyer’s cavity.  If the cavity moves and all mundane explanations have been eliminated, then it could be a significant breakthrough in propulsion.  The initial application will be for station keeping of satellites, however, if the resultant force can be scaled up significantly and Shawyer’s experiments suggested it can, then much larger forces should be possible.  The cavity has been designed and all the necessary parts purchased, and what is needed now if funding for final fabrication and testing.

Introduction

After a long and successful career in microwave engineering, an British engineer named Roger Shawyer decided to investigate an anomaly that had plagued linear accelerators.  Linear accelerators use high power resonating chambers to increase the speed of the particles and in doing so, they ran into a problem with the cavities detuning [1][2].  The problem was that, at full power, the cavities were decreasing their lengths slightly.  In 2001 after retiring from his job at EADS Astrium, he created a company and got funding to see if the force that was causing the detuning could be used for propulsion[5].

Over the course of the past seven years, Roger Shawyer has built three generations of microwave thrusters, each with a higher Q or Quality factor, a measure of the electrical “resistance”.  The first tapered cavity, made out of copper, had a Q of 5900 and for approximately 500W input power, produced 84mN of force.  The second copper cavity he called the “Demonstration Engine”, had a Q of 50,000 and produced 214mN of force.[6]

Shawyer has recently created a superconducting version of his cavity which has a Q of 6,800,000 and although he got “exactly the results” he expected, he has not released the force measurements.

The objective of this proposal is to reproduce Shawyer’s “Demonstration Engine” and if movement is noted, to eliminate all mundane explanations.

This research is not without it’s criticism because the theory Shawyer suggests to explain the asymmetrical force has problems.  However, the theory is outside of the scope of the experiment this proposal will fund and the sole purpose is to independently reproduce the results and eliminate all mundane explanations.  The experiment will be done in collaboration with Dr. Karumudi, assistant professor at the University of Alberta and 2005 winner of the Governor’s Generals Gold Medal award for top graduate students. [4]

This independent verification the proposal will help test is not unique.  As mentioned in an September 24th, 2008 article in Wired Magazine [3] a Chinese professor by the name of Yang Jan at the Northwestern Polytechnical University (NPU) in Xi’an is also racing to recreate the effect as well.

[1] “Lorentz Force Detuning Analysis of the Spallation Neutron Source Accelerating Cavities”, R. Mitchel, et.all, Los Almos National Lab
[2] “Lorentz Force Detuning Compensation System for Accelerating Field Gradients Up to 35MV/M for Superconducting XFEL and TESLA Nine-Cell Cavities”, P. Sekalski, et.al., Technical University of Lodz, DMSC, Poldan, CARE conference, 2001.
[3] “Chinese Say They’re Building ‘Impossible’ Space Drive”, David Hambling, September 24th, 2008, http://blog.wired.com/defense/2008/09/chinese-buildin.html
[4] “Top Graduate Student Streamlines Microwave Design”, The Ring, June 2005, Vol. 31, No. 6 – http://ring.uvic.ca/05jun09/features/rambabu.html
[5] Background of EMdrive, Roger Shawyer, http://emdrive.com/background.html
[6] Demonstrator Engine, video footage of movement, Roger Shawyer, http://emdrive.com/dynamictests.html

Methodology

The experiment will reproduce the “Demonstration Engine” and a simplified 3D model is shown below:

The magnetron, supporting structure, measurement/power hardware and cooling radiator are not shown.

Using the lab facilities at the UofA, the experimental apparatus will be constructed.  Once complete and tuned, if the cavity moves, the following experiments will be conducted to ensure that all mundane explanations are eliminated:

  1. Hung as a Pendulum – In order to eliminate movement due to the cavity pushing or pulling on an external reference point, it will be hung from a long wire and tested.
  2. Inside Faraday Cage – If the cavity passes the first test, it will then be placed inside a Faraday cage to ensure no electrical or magnetic interactions with the surroundings are the cause of movement.
  3. Test for Buoyancy – Heated and/or moving air could account for the force being generated and will also be eliminated.

Upon completion of testing, a journal-ready paper outlining all the testing methodologies and results will be written and submitted to the appropriate physics journal.

Budget

Per year, for two years:
$55,000 – one year stipend for Dr. Karumudi and/or graduate students
$3,500 – License for CST’s Microwave Studio modeling software per year. (see references)
$3,500 – Research Incidentals including extra waveguides, power couplers, etc.

Total per year: $62,000K
Total over two years: $124,000

Applications

The initial application is for satellite station-keeping and orientation.  A cavity that can produce a unidirectional force with only microwaves has an advantage in terms of launch weight and longevity over a propellant based propulsion method.  Shawyer’s very first test cavity produced 85 mN of thrust compared to 92mN for the NSTAR ion drive, but Shawyer’s cavity only consumes a quarter of the amount of power.  The microwave drive system including the cavity also weighs less than 7 kilos, compared to over 30 kilos for the ion drive.. The biggest difference is in propellant because the NSTAR uses 10 grams per hour whereas the microwave cavity uses none and will last as long as it has an electricity supply.

If the force can be scaled up, then it it might be possible to eventually replace most forms of reaction propulsion.

Conclusion and Benefits

This proposal meets the main objectives of the Alberta Ingenuity Fund:

  • Stimulate research in science and engineering

The experiment is an excellent example of applied microwave engineering.

  • Promote the effective use of existing provincial science and engineering resources

Uses the lab at the University of Alberta and the expertise of Dr. Karumudi

  • Support Alberta’s science and engineering research facilities

Supports the University of Alberta

  • Minimize duplication and promote efficiency, by encouraging cooperation within science and engineering research

A collaboration with the University of Alberta.

  • Encourage young Albertans to pursue careers in science and engineering

Will engage one of the newest faculty members of the University of Alberta and graduate students.

Eligibility

Levitee is a startup and meets the following criteria:

  • Provincially or federally incorporated and operates in Alberta, or if not incorporated, is wholly Alberta-owned

Check – Levitee is a wholly Alberta-owned sole proprietorship

  • Operates on a for-profit basis

Check

  • Possesses adequate and sound financial resources

Check –  Levitee has already purchased %95 of the necessary parts for the experiment, including a circulator ($1200 new), reflection load ($600), waveguide to N transition ($600), the raw sheets of copper ($700), plasma cutter ($1100) and a computer with a quad core processor necessary for the simulation software ($3000).

  • Engaged in R and D activities based, to a significant extent, on technology derived from science and engineering disciplines

Check – microwave engineering

  • Maintains appropriate in-house research facilities such as laboratories and computing equipment within the company’s premises OR has access to external research facilities as supported by contractual agreements

Check – experiment will use the lab at the University of Alberta

  • Has an effective plan for applying the research results, and marketing or exploiting products or processes in the best interests of the company and the Alberta economy

CheckProjects
Research projects meets the following criteria to be eligible:

  • Pre-competitive research focusing on a targeted or applied research question or problem leading to the Proof-of-Concept of an inventive idea

Check – the experiment will eliminate all mundane explanations

Candidates
Candidates must meet each of the following criteria to be eligible:

1. Graduate of a Master’s or PhD program within five years of application date OR graduate student expecting to complete Master’s or PhD degree requirements within three months of submitting an application.

Check – Dr. Karumudi graduated in 2005 with a PhD

2. Not currently employed by the sponsoring Alberta-based company OR is currently employed by the sponsoring company but for less than 12 months.

Check – Dr. Karumudi is not employed by Levitee

List of References

  1. Roger Shawyer and the EM Drive
  2. Dr. Karumudi
  3. Lorentz-Force Detuning
  4. Computer Simulation Technology – Microwave Studio – http://www.cst.com/Content/Products/MWS/Overview.aspx
  5. What an ION thruster is and thrust measurements – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ion_Engine

Contacts:

Sean Donovan
Levitee
Sherwood Park, Alberta
Phone: 1-866-809-5132
Email: [email protected]

Dr. Karumudi
Assistant Professor
ECERF W2-100
University of Alberta
Phone: 780-492-6983
Email: [email protected]

Shawyer Cavity Details

Hi Rambabu,

Thank you for meeting with me today and I will have a rough draft of the funding proposal to you by Friday.  I have started putting out feelers to see if I know anybody who knows someone at the Alberta Ingenuity Fund.

As I mentioned today, Shawyer has completed his superconducting cavity which he talks about in his presentation here [slideshare.com].  The Q he notes on slide 24 is 6.8×106 which is a 100x improvement over the Q 5.0×104 of the “demonstration engine” copper cavity and he is running it at 40Watts input power.  He doesn’t state what force he is getting but an August 2008 article mentions:

Roger Shawyer was beaming when I arrived at his laboratory in West Sussex; on his bench, liquid nitrogen was still boiling off, from minus195C, in an intriguing device called the EmDrive. He had just completed a pivotal three-day experiment with exactly the results he anticipated, confirming the validity of his efforts.

If Roger is happy, then it likely means that, if the force vs Q curve holds up, he should have close to a newton of force at this point.

There is also an article published just this morning on Wired that mentions the Chinese are actively reproducing Shawyer’s EMdrive and interestingly, the British have stopped funding Shawyer (not something I will mention in the proposal):

“Many have dismissed his work out of hand, and British government funding has ceased. He has had some interest from both the United States and China. Now the Chinese connection with the Northwestern Polytechnical University (NPU) in Xi’an seems to have paid off.”

The article also compares the EMdrive to Ion thrusters:

The Emdrive produces 85 mN of thrust compared to 92 for the NSTAR (that’s about one-third of an ounce), but the Emdrive only consumes a quarter of the amount of power and weighs less than 7 kilos, compared to over 30 kilos. The biggest difference is in propellant: NSTAR uses 10 grams per hour; the Emdrive uses none. As long as it has an electricity supply, the Emdrive will keep going.

The “85mN” is from his very first device with a Q of only 5900 but his demonstration engine produces an average of 214mN, which is what we will be reproducing.

Here are pictures of his superconducting setup:

And Shawyer cooling his cylinder:

And the cavity:

Note how small the cavity is by comparing it against the brick work behind it, the same brick work shown in the pictures above.  The cavity is then placed inside the tin can and surrounded by liquid nitrogen as Shawyer shows above.

First Meeting Follow-up

Thank you for meeting with me yesterday.  The experience was an immense exhilaration and I learned a lot.

I have decided my next step is to start with what seems to work, and duplicate Shawyer’s results, specifically his “demonstration engine“.   If all the mundane explanations, as mentioned yesterday, can be controlled for (see bottom) and the cavity still moves, then I want to test my “high powered resonating EM wave connection to gravity” idea.  I also want to test the cavity by hanging it from a pendulum.  To test the gravity connection idea, I have a few ideas in mind, one of which is using a reflected laser to create interference patterns (I have to learn more about these).

I have already completed one set of simulations of Shawyer’s cavity (shown) but I still have to draw the thing to scale and figure out how to pump it in the TE0,1,n mode.

I will have to check, but I think the surrounding material is a “Perfect Electrical Conductor” which would explain the high V/m.   The simulation is using the eigenmode solver.

I will keep you updated and send simulation results.

Below I have labeled most of the parts of Shawyer’s cavity :

I have a few questions:
1. As shown on his home page, Shawyer tunes his cavity from the back and I plan to do the same thing, however, should I also order a tuning stub? I am asking because I plan to get a launcher, isolator and waveguide to n-type adapter ordered shortly because of the lead times.
2. Do you know of any vendors for launchers, isolators and waveguides?  I have priced out the following vendors:
Isolator – datasheet here [PDF] – $950 (refurbished)
Launcher – $490 – Guoguang Electric Co., Ltd., China

Waveguide to n-type adapter – $490 – Guoguang Electric Co., Ltd., China

BTW – I thought you might be interested in how I tested the cavity I showed you:

The magnetron was dunked in mineral oil to cool it, keep it electrically isolated and remove the blowing fan.  The oil was pumped out of the can and circulated through a radiator at the bottom, before returning.  The entire apparatus was hung as a pendulum with aircraft wire.  A laser was bounced off the can onto a white board in the background in such a manner that even the smallest movement of the test rig would result in an amplified movement of the laser dot (barely visible).  The plan was to draw scaled marks on the whiteboard, but because of arcing, I never got that far.  The oil circulating in the pump also imparted a slight wobble which took forever to damp out.  The cavity was only tested about four times and at most for 20 seconds.

Method for Testing Thermal and Mass Exchange Affects:

Two Types of Conventional Explanations:

  1. Mass exchange – i.e. rocket type propellant
  2. Thermal affects – two forms, the first is a jet of air and the second is buoyancy.

Mass Exchange:

For the mass exchange, we can measure the weight of the apparatus before and after to test to make sure no mass has been lost or gained.

Thermal Effects:

Place a garbage bag (tested for holes first), around the experiment and rerun it.  Check to see if it changes shape, etc.

First Meeting Call

Hi Dr. Karumudi,

I called this afternoon, but apparently your voice mail hasn’t been set up yet.

I heard that you are teaching the EE470 class on the “Electromagnetics of Waveguides” and I have some related questions.  I am doing research into microwave propulsion and want to double check a few things before I go onto my next experiment.

Would it be possible to meet with you for an hour or so at your office?  My work number is <removed for blog> (toll free) or try my home number, 6<removed for blog>, and I am located in Sherwood Park just outside of Edmonton.

I will try calling again later today.